Visual Basic Blog Posts (page 1 of 1)

Ambiguous ExtensionAttribute Errors

I was recently contacted by Nathanael Jones of the ImageResizer project about a question he had posted on Stack Overflow:

How can a single .NET assembly, targeting 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 concurrently, support extension methods for both C# and VB.NET consumers?

Short Answer: You can’t. You think you can, but if you’re serious about targeting .NET 2.0/3.0 and 3.5+ as well as that whole C# and VB support thing, you can’t. Not really.

Long Answer: People love extension methods. Seriously, I think some people want to marry extension methods they love them so much. They just can’t stand to be without their extension methods, even when they’re using .NET 2.0.

Rather than go without, some people figured out how to get extension methods support on older versions of the .NET Runtime. Extension methods are essentially a compile time technology – the IL that gets emitted for calling an extension method is identical to the IL for calling a normal static method. The only runtime dependency for extension methods is the ExtensionAttribute which is used to mark methods intended to be used as extension methods (as well as classes and assemblies that contain them). ExtensionAttribute is defined in System.Core from .NET 3.5, but it’s just a marker. If you define your own copy of ExtensionAttribute and use the VS 2008 or later version of the C# compiler, you can get extension methods to work on .NET 2.0.

Back when I was working on IronPython, we ran into this exact issue when we merged DLR expression trees with LINQ expression trees. LINQ trees used extension methods all over the place, but we still needed to support .NET 2.0 in IronPython. We were already using the VS08 compiler so all we had to do was add our own copy of ExtensionAttribute to the DLR and we were good to go…or so we thought. Instead, we discovered that this approach doesn’t work as advertised – at least not if you care about VB support.

The problem stems from having multiple copies of ExtensionAttribute. IronPython and DLR had no problem – they were compiled for .NET 2.0 and thus had only the one copy of ExtensionAttribute that we added to the DLR. But people who used IronPython or DLR in a .NET 3.5 project ended up two copies of ExtensionAttribute – the copy we added to DLR and the official System.Core version. Two copies of a system provided type == start of a big problem.

Actually, if you’re only using C#, having multiple copies of ExtensionAttribute isn’t that big a deal. The C# compiler raises a warning when it find multiple definitions of a type in the System namespace. Because ExtensionAttribute is in the System namespace, C# has to pick one of the colliding type definitions to use. However, since the copies of ExtensionAttribute are identical it doesn’t matter which version the C# compiler picks.

Unfortunately, Visual Basic is much less forgiving when it encounters multiple versions of the same type. Instead of a warning like C#, the VB compiler raises an error when it encounters multiple definitions of ExtensionAttribute. So the “define your own ExtensionAttribute” approach leaves you with a DLL that won’t work from VB on .NET 3.5 or later.

Excluding VB on what was the most recent version of .NET at the time was a non starter for us, so we investigated other options. We discovered that we could “solve” this issue (again “or so we thought”) by having an internal definition of ExtensionAttribute in every assembly that needed it. Since the types weren’t public, VB stopped complaining about type collisions. C# still had the compiler warning, but we had already decided not to care about that.

I said at the time “It seems counterintuitive, doesn’t it? To solve a multiple type definition problem, we defined even more copies of the type in question.” Yeah, turns out I was kinda way wrong about that. We discovered later that having an internal ExtensionAttribute per project solved the VB ambiguous type error but introduced a new “break all the other extension methods in the project error”.

Remember earlier when I wrote it didn’t matter which copy of ExtensionAttribute the C# compiler picks because they are “identical”? Remember when I wrote we could solve the VB ambiguous type error by changing the visibility of ExtensionAttribute? Woops. Changing the visibility of our ExtensionAttribute meant it was no longer identical which meant it kinda mattered which copy of ExtensionAttribute the C# compiler choose. If the C# compiler picked one of our internal ExtensionAttributes, it would break every use of extension methods in the project referencing IronPython or the DLR!

We investigated a bunch of ways to control which version of ExtensionAttribute was selected by the C# compiler, but we couldn’t find an easy, obvious way in MSBuild to control the order of references passed to the compiler. In the end, we moved the custom ExtensionAttribute into its own DLL. That way, we could reference it from our IronPython and DLR projects to get extension method support but .NET 3.5 projects referencing either IronPython or DLR could reference System.Core instead. We still got the C# warning, but since we were back to identical ExtensionAttribute  definitions, the warning could be ignored.

Believe me, if there had been any way to remove the extension methods from the DLR and IronPython, we would have done it. Having a separate assembly with just a single custom attribute definition is an ugly hack, pure and simple. But the DLR was essentially the .NET 4.0 version System.Core – getting it to run along side the .NET 3.5 version of System.Core was bound to require hacks.

My advice to Nathanial on SO was the same as I gave at the top of this post: don’t use the “define your own ExtensionAttribute” hack to try and get extension method support on .NET 2.0. Extensions methods are nice, but they aren’t worth the headache of dealing with the errors that stem from multiple definitions of ExtensionAttribute when you try to use your library from .NET 3.5 or later.

The Windows Runtime

After nearly 2 years of not being able to tell anyone what I was working on – or even the name of the team I was on! – //build is finally here and the Windows 8 developer preview is finally out there in the open for everyone to start building applications for. You have NO idea how hard it’s been for me to keep my mouth shut and blog quiet about this!

I am a program manager on the Runtime Experience team, one of many teams in the Windows division building Windows 8. Our team is responsible for building the underlying infrastructure that powers the Windows Runtime (or WinRT for short). In particular, I work on the WinRT metadata infrastructure. I also work closely with our partners in Developer Division that use the metadata to project WinRT APIs into multiple languages.

In a nutshell, WinRT is the new API surface area for Metro style apps in Windows 8. WinRT APIs are available across multiple languages – C#, Visual Basic, C++ and JavaScript – enabling developers to build Metro style apps using the language and frameworks they are most familiar with. Much, much more info is available on the new Windows Dev Center.

In addition to the developer preview docs for WinRT, there are several sessions at //build focusing on WinRT – what it is, how it works under the covers, and how you use it from the various languages. Here’s a handy list of all the //build sessions you should check out if you want to know more about WinRT:

As I write this, not all the sessions have been delivered and none of them are available online yet. But they should all be online within a couple of days. Also, you can also get more information as well as ask questions over at the Windows Dev Center Forums. Our dev manager has already been very busy answering questions!

I am so excited that you can finally see what we’ve been working on and I can wait to see what you build with Windows 8!

Weakly Typed Dynamic Languages and Natural Selection

I’m not reading much in the way of blogs or twitter these days – way to heads down in my new job for that right now. But I did see Scott Hanselman’s post on method overloading and dynamic types and Ted Neward’s follow-on post static-typing fundamentalism. Even though I’ve moved on from the IronPython team, dynamic typing is a topic that’s still near and dear to my heart so I can’t resist throwing in my 2¢.

First off, I agree 100% with Ted’s post – though not the over-the-top mocking tone. These static > dynamic flame bait comments are so tired that they’ve literally become cliché. I agree with Ted’s points, but by answering fire with fire he’s just perpetuating the flame war that he claims to be so tired of. I really am tired of it, so I’m not going to bother to address any of the original anti-dynamic typing faux-arguments (fauxguments?) nor Ted’s artful and devastatingly mocking takedown of them.

But I do have a question for any static-typing fundamentalists in the audience: if static typing is so much better than dynamic typing, then how come dynamically typed languages are so popular? Doesn’t natural selection apply to type systems?

Those aren’t rhetorical questions. Building software takes time and effort. While developers often donate time and effort to projects (see: open source) typically they work for money. That money has to come from somewhere – usually it comes from someone who needs the software built for some business reason. And the people footing the bill for software construction demand the highest return on investment they can get.

If dynamic typing or VARIANT (which is actually weak not dynamic typing, but I digress) really did create “horrific devastation”, wouldn’t that have caused a negative feedback loop where the business people who actually foot the bills for creating software became wary and untrusting of using VB as the language of choice for their projects in favor of strong and statically typed languages that helped developers “make good choices”?

Yet the opposite happened. VB was the most popular programming language in the world for the better part of a decade. And while VB’s reign at the top is over, I’d argue that these days the most popular programming languages are PHP and JavaScript, both of which are weakly typed dynamic languages too.

Now clearly, popular != better. However, static-typing fundamentalism isn’t an argument about which way is “better” so much as an argument about which way is “worthy”. But how can you argue that you’re approach is the only worthy path when the opposite approach has been so successful? Remember, one developer’s “horrific devastation” might be another businessman’s “successful project because it helped me enter a new market faster than my competitors”. 

VB Dev Lead Position Open

In case you’re job hunting, the VB team has a position open for a dev lead:

The Visual Basic team has a long history of delivering great value to our customers, and we are continuing that in the Dev10 release of Visual Studio. We’re looking for a Development Lead to help guide these efforts as well as shape future versions of the compiler.

The Visual Studio Languages group (VSL) develops VB, C#, F#, IronPython and IronRuby. As a member of this product unit, you’ll have the opportunity to work with others developing compilers and IDEs targeting the .NET runtime. You’ll benefit from their experience and contribute best practices and methodologies of your own. In VSL, developers work closely with their QA team, and we are committed to delivering the best value for our customers at very high quality.

As a Development Lead on the Visual Basic compiler, you’ll be the hand at the tiller of VB.NET compiler development. Specifically, you will:

  • Manage the day-to-day duties of the compiler and runtime development team, ensuring on-schedule delivery of high quality components.
  • Help chart the direction the compiler team takes by prioritizing efforts in coordination with your counterparts in QA and PM.
  • Contribute to the design of the Visual Basic programming language.
  • Mentor your team of developers to continue their career growth.
  • Help shape the engineering environment and procedures in Visual Studio Languages.
  • Work closely with the IDE team to help them provide a top notch editing and debugging experience.

To be successful, you’ll need the following:

  • A demonstrated aptitude for managing a team of high-caliber developers.
  • Excellent communication, collaboration and negotiation skills and the ability to drive open issues to closure.
  • Strong architectural sense and a working knowledge of the fundamentals of compiler design.
  • Passion for delivering customer solutions and quality software in general.
  • Working knowledge of the managed runtime environment is a strong plus.

Programming Languages @ PDC08

The PDC folks pushed out a bunch of new sessions yesterday, including a bunch from my part of DevDiv. You can see the full list of sessions that have been published (so far) at the PDC site.

An Introduction to F#
Learn about Microsoft’s new language, F#, a typed functional programming language for the .NET Framework. F# combines functional programming with the runtime support, libraries, tools, and object model of .Net. Understand how F# asynchronous workflows help tame the complexity of parallel and asynchronous I/O programming and how to use F# in conjunction with tools such as Parallel Extensions for .NET.

Deep Dive: Dynamic Languages in .NET
The CLR has great support for dynamic languages like IronPython. Learn how the new Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) adds a shared dynamic type system, a standard hosting model, and support for generating fast dynamic code. Hear how these features enable languages that use the DLR to share code with other dynamic and static languages like VB.NET and C#.

Future Directions for Visual Basic
Come learn about the new capabilities in the next version of the language, including: extensions to LINQ, syntax simplifications, and improvements to the IDE. We’ll provide insight into the direction of the language, including dynamic binding, meta-programming, and scripting.

The Future of C#
In this talk Microsoft Technical fellow and C# Chief Architect Anders Hejlsberg outlines the future of C#. He will describe the many forces that influence and shape the future of programming languages and explain how they fit into C#.

Visual C++: 10 is the New 6
Get more done. The next version of Visual C++ is all about improving developer productivity for large-scale applications. Learn about the IntelliSense and browsing experiences, changes to the project and build system, project-less browsing, collaboration through remote symbol indexing, and custom visualization of symbolic information.